North American Defense Modernization in an Age of Uncertainty

First formally identified as a priority in the 2017 defense white paper, Strong, Secure and Engaged, and three years after NORAD modernization was identified in Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s mandate letter to Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan, the Trudeau government has finally earmarked funds for North American defense modernization. In the 2021 federal budget, the government did commit by defense standards, a paltry $252 million to “lay the groundwork for North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD) modernization and sustain existing continental and Arctic defense capabilities” (Canada 2021). Yet no spending details…

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